There are several plausible mechanisms by which social cohesion might influence health through contextual effects (). At the neighborhood level, social capital might influence health behaviors by promoting more rapid diffusion of health information, increasing the likelihood that healthy norms of behavior are adopted, and exerting control over deviant health-related behavior. provide evidence that “collective efficacy,” or the extent to which neighbors are willing to exert social control over deviant behavior, plays an important role in preventing crime and delinquency. A similar process might operate to prevent other forms of unhealthy behavior, such as adolescent smoking, drinking, and drug abuse. Neighborhood social capital also could affect health by increasing access to local services and amenities; evidence from criminology suggests that socially cohesive neighborhoods are more successful at uniting to ensure that budget cuts do not disrupt local services (). Finally, neighborhood social capital could influence health through direct psychosocial pathways by providing social support and acting as the source of self-esteem and mutual respect, for example. Variations in the availability of psychosocial resources at the community level might explain the anomalous finding that individuals with few social ties but who reside in socially cohesive communities—such as East Boston (), African Americans in rural Georgia (), or Japanese Americans in Hawaii ()—do not appear to suffer the same adverse health consequences as do socially isolated people living in less cohesive communities (). At the state level, it appears that more cohesive states produce more egalitarian patterns of political participation, which result in policies that ensure the security of all residents ().
...Deviant Behavior In Saudi Arabia, a woman is not allowed to vote. She is also not allowed to operate a vehicle. In that country, a woman's status is below a man and she is not able to obtain the same equal rights as her male counterparts. This leads me to believe that the people of Saudi Arabia still believe a woman's place is in the home and she needn't be afforded any extra rights. Saudi Arabia uses religion and tribal customs as a basis for women's rights, which is likely the reason they are not afforded many privileges. This perpetuates the belief that a woman must be submissive or second-rate, so it becomes a social norm. In the US, as part of a free country, we all have a voice and want it to be heard. We understand and acknowledge the need to be treated fairly, and we work hard to be able to get these rights enacted for the people A person who has more power in society will likely be treated as less of a criminal, and most often times, will be punished in a civil court rather than criminal court. These higher ups usually also have great attorneys and ample money to help handle getting the case closed in their favor. A person who does not have these luxuries or notoriety will likely be appointed an over-worked, underpaid state attorney that does not spend much time on the case, regardless of his or her feelings on whether the defendant is guilty or innocent, possibly resulting in poor representation and greater consequences(Macionis,......
This means that almost any action or characteristic we could do or think of is approved in some social circles and condemned in others. Almost inevitably, we depart or deviate from someone’s rules, simply by acting or being ourselves, since we can’t conform to all the different sets of rules that exist. Sociologists refer to behavior that is regarded as wrongdoing that generates negative reactions in persons who witness or hear about it, as deviant behavior. Many definitions of deviant behavior exist. In the book titled Deviant Behavior by Alex Thio he states that there are many conflicting definitions for deviant behavior.
Deviance is also relative in two other ways. First, it is relative in space: a given behavior may be considered deviant in one society but acceptable in another society. Recall the discussion of sexual behavior in , where we saw that sexual acts condemned in some societies are often practiced in others. Second, deviance is relative in time: a behavior in a given society may be considered deviant in one time period but acceptable many years later; conversely, a behavior may be considered acceptable in one time period but deviant many years later. In the late 1800s, many Americans used cocaine, marijuana, and opium, because they were common components of over-the-counter products for symptoms like depression, insomnia, menstrual cramps, migraines, and toothaches. Coca-Cola originally contained cocaine and, perhaps not surprisingly, became an instant hit when it went on sale in 1894 (Goode, 2008). Today, of course, all three drugs are illegal.
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In looking at deviance through the functionalist perspective one can see the earlier concept of deviance, as based on norms, acceptable. Deviance serves as a function that is perhaps necessary in society. For instance, rights of passage in any society may be considered deviant to another culture or to the society itself under certain conditions. Lets say that at a bachelor party, a man about to be married may be forgiven for his acts of deviant behavior. These behaviors may not be acceptable under any other conditions, but society sanctions rituals and rights of passage. This is most often expressed in group solidarity as opposed to individual behavior. Sometimes the function is latent in that it may not be seen right away or not be expressed in a direct cause and effect relationship.
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Sociological interest in deviance includes both interests in measuring formal deviance (statistics of criminal behavior; see below), examining how people (individually and collectively) define some things deviant and others normative, and a number of theories that try to explain both the role of deviance in society and its origins. This chapter will cover the theories of deviance used by sociologists and will also cover current crime statistics.
Deviant Behavior / The Social Learning Theory Essay
While the focus of this chapter is on sociological explanations of deviance, there are explanations from other disciplines as well. For instance, recent research in neurology and psychology finds that boys with conduct disorder have differences in their brain structure and that those differences exist during childhood and adolescence. These differences likely contribute to their deviant behavior, but whether or not these differences exist before deviant activities is widely debated.