This is similar to the post-hoc fallacy in that it assumes cause and effect for two variables simply because they occur together. This fallacy is often used to give a statistical correlation a causal interpretation. For example, during the 1990’s both religious attendance and illegal drug use have been on the rise. It would be a fallacy to conclude that therefore, religious attendance causes illegal drug use. It is also possible that drug use leads to an increase in religious attendance, or that both drug use and religious attendance are increased by a third variable, such as an increase in societal unrest. It is also possible that both variables are independent of one another, and it is mere coincidence that they are both increasing at the same time.
Further, even with purely epidemiological, or statistical, evidence it is still possible to build a strong scientific case for a specific cause. The way to do this is to look at multiple independent correlations to see if they all point to the same causal relationship. For example, it was observed that cigarette smoking correlates with getting lung cancer. The tobacco industry, invoking the “correlation is not causation” logical fallacy, argued that this did not prove causation. They offered as an alternate explanation “factor x”, a third variable that causes both smoking and lung cancer. But we can make predictions based upon the smoking causes cancer hypothesis. If this is the correct causal relationship, then duration of smoking should correlate with cancer risk, quitting smoking should decrease cancer risk, smoking unfiltered cigarettes should have a higher cancer risk than filtered cigarettes, etc. If all of these correlations turn out to be true, which they are, then we can triangulate to the smoking causes cancer hypothesis as the most likely possible causal relationship and it is not a logical fallacy to conclude from this evidence that smoking probably causes lung cancer.
Arbitrarily reducing a set of many possibilities to only two. For example, evolution is not possible, therefore we must have been created (assumes these are the only two possibilities). This fallacy can also be used to oversimplify a continuum of variation to two black and white choices. For example, science and pseudoscience are not two discrete entities, but rather the methods and claims of all those who attempt to explain reality fall along a continuum from one extreme to the other.
The testimony of Thompson may be relevant to a request for leniency, but it is irrelevant to any claim about the defendant not being near the murder scene. Other examples of this fallacy are , , , and Argument from Ignorance.
Popular fallacies essay, Homework Writing Service
If I learn that your plan for building the shopping center next to the Johnson estate originated with Johnson himself, who is likely to profit from the deal, then my pointing out to the planning commission the origin of the deal would be relevant in their assessing your plan. Because not all appeals to origins are irrelevant, it sometimes can be difficult to decide if the Genetic Fallacy has been used. For example, if Sigmund Freud shows that the genesis of a person's belief in God is their desire for a strong father figure, then does it follow that their belief in God is misplaced, or is Freud's reasoning committing the Genetic Fallacy?
One aspect of particular significance is logical correctness
...Fallacy Summaries with Examples Name: Institution: Fallacy Summaries with Examples Appeal to Authority The fallacy of appeal to authority also referred to as the Fallacious Appeal to Authority, irrelevant Authority or Ad Vercundiam takes the following form, the first person is claimed to be an authority on subject S and hence makes a claim C about subject S hence making C true. The fallacy is mostly committed when the individual in question is not a lawful authority on the subject. This implies that if an individual A does not merit making reliable claims on a subject B, the argument becomes fallacious. The reasoning becomes fallacious when the individual under focus is not necessarily an expert hence the given cases makes the reasoning flawed since there is no justification for the claim since an unauthorized person made the claim. In the event that a person falls prey to the fallacy, then it implies that the individual is accepting a claim as being true in the absence of adequate evidence to do so. Additionally, the individual accepting the claim does so erroneously on belief that the individual making the claim is an expert which implies that the claim is reasonable to accept. Example 1 An argument about the morality of abortion Individual A: I strongly believe in abortion as being morally acceptable simply because a woman aught to have a right over her own body. Individual B: I strongly disagree. Findings from numerous medical researches say that abortion is...
Appeal to Popularity - Logically Fallacious
Genetic Fallacy: This conclusion is based on an argument that the origins of a person, idea, institute, or theory determine its character, nature, or worth. Example:
...Choose four fallacies and explain why they can be persuasive and appear to be logical. Give examples. 1. APPEAL TO AUTHORITY: Often at times, people embrace the beliefs of people in authority, like famous actors, athletes and so on without the understanding that these people in positions of authority do not necessarily have the expertise to put them in position to advise. And so, not minding this, we as consumers of products accept what the person in authority stands for. An example is when an athlete becomes the official spokesperson for a beer company. People tend to drink the same beer the person in authority is drinking in the advert because they believe if the athlete is drinking this beer, then it must be good. People in authority influence some of our thinking and decision making. But that does mean what is good for them is good for us. 2. BANDWAGON: This fallacy of accepting others’ opinion; people want to do what the majority are doing not because it is the right thing to do based on rational thinking, but because it is what a famous group is doing, therefore it must be right. An example was when I was younger, a particular purse was advertised and almost every kid at school had it, I did not feel good being different from other children. So, I cried my eyes out till my parents bought me the same purse. Having the purse made me feel like I belonged to the famous group at school and I liked it. But the truth is as an adult, I know better not to do what...Genetic Fallacy: This conclusion is based on an argument that the origins of a person, idea, institute, or theory determine its character, nature, or worth. Example:...Zeeshan Babar 7 July, 2015 First Victimized, Now Victimizing History tells us about how hundreds of years ago all men and women except for the one with power were oppressed by emperors and kings. They were allowed to do only what the emperor allowed them to do, and he could make them do whatever he wanted them to de. Even the one with power in the empire were not allowed to deny or disagree with the emperor, or else they would suffer the same fate as every one else. However with time people revolted and revolution came after decades breaking this tradition of monarchy, and making every individual free with their rights. Now every individual is said to be a free human who has natural rights. But even in these modernized societies after all that human race has experienced, and has been through the fallacy of appeal to tradition still exists. Appeal to tradition is the fallacy that a standpoint, situation or action is right, proper, and correct simply because it has “always” been that way, because people have “always” thought that way, or because it continues to serve one particular group very well. It is the notion that if an idea has been around for a while than it should be followed and is true. This fallacy is one of the major reasons that have been recognized for the oppression of women all around the world. This is...