Hollywood is a Vessel for Enforcing Gender Stereotypes

5. Explore one of the following topics in terms of gender roles and stereotypes:

While almost every woman today has the right to vote, there is still progress to be made for women in politics. Studies have shown that in several democracies including Australia, Canada and the United States, women are still represented using gender stereotypes in the press. Multiple authors have shown that gender differences in the media are less evident today than they used to be in the 1980s, but are nonetheless still present. Certain issues (e.g., education) are likely to be linked with female candidates, while other issues (e.g., taxes) are likely to be linked with male candidates. In addition, there is more emphasis on female candidates' personal qualities, such as their appearance and their personality, as females are portrayed as emotional and dependent.

Sexism is discrimination, prejudice, or stereotyping on the basis of gender. Sexism is most often expressed toward girls and women. It has been characterized as the "hatred of women" and "entrenched prejudice against women".

The way women are represented in the media has been criticized as perpetuating negative gender stereotypes. The refers to the criticisms that are levied against the use or objectification of women in the , when such use or portrayal aims at increasing the appeal of media or a product, to the detriment of, or without regard to, the interests of the women portrayed, or women in general. Concerns include the fact that all forms of media have the power to shape the population's perceptions and portray images of unrealistic stereotypical perceptions by portraying women either as submissive housewives or as sex objects. The media emphasizes traditional domestic or sexual roles that normalize violence against women.

GENDER STEREOTYPE’S IN TODAY’S SOCIETY

The idea that the interaction of and generates the myriad things in existence corresponds to intercourse between male and female as the only means for reproducing life. Therefore, the nature of men and women in Chinese philosophy is not only based on purely physiological characteristics and differences, but is also the embodiment of and forces in gender. The of men and women are linked to the of the universe in terms of reproducing life. This is systematically discussed in the , one of China’s most ancient and influential texts. There, eight trigrams are given, which represent eight natural phenomena and can further be combined to form sixty-four hexagrams. These are expressions of the function and movement of and . They are composed of two contrasting symbols: the unbroken horizontal line, and the broken horizontal line. Some scholars see these as referring to the male and female genitals respectively. In this sense, the first two hexagrams or “heaven” (which is six s) and or “earth” (six s) can be interpreted as representing pure and . They are also responsible for the formation of general gender stereotypes in Chinese thought. They provide the gateways for change, and are considered, quite literally, the father and mother of all other hexagrams (which equates to all things in the world). The broad system of the attempts to explain every type of change and existence, and is built upon an identification of and with the sexes as well as their interaction with one another.

Gender stereotypes, TV ads, Malaysia

Furthermore our society is also rather stereotypical of gender; men on average are paid more than woman on majority of the given jobs, just due to the fact that their male and posses a phallus! Equally both Men and women are stereotyped by society into only certain type of jobs that are deemed as acceptable and appropriate, and although the taboo of many one-sex jobs have being broken, the sense of masculinity and femininity still comes attached with certain jobs, For example jobs such as; teacher, hairdresser, nurse, cleaner are mostly deemed feminine hence females are unsurprisingly directed to follow these career paths, subsequently jobs such as; lawyer, doctor, builder and engineer are all mainly considered as masculine, thus naturally males are instructed to follow them as career paths! In this investigation, my primary source will be a magazine dedicated to the female audience; I shall be conducting this investigation to determine whether my initial hypothesis was correct. ?? ?? ?? ?? Darius B R10

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Then your introduction can include the definition or explanation of what gender stereotypes are.

Several studies have shown that the traditional stereotype of a “good” manager being masculine and male still exists. The recent changes in the proportion of women and female managers in organizations could affect these two managerial stereotypes, leading to a stronger preference for feminine characteristics and female leaders. This study examines if the gender of an employee, the gender of the manager, and the management gender ratio in an organization are related to employees’ managerial stereotypes.

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[…] women are not the only ones who suffer from gender stereotyping. Between music, movies, and TV the media has done a sufficient job in creating an image for its audiences of what the typical adult male is […]


Gender stereotype essay | El Hizjra

Alternatively, the findings from Shin et al (1999) demonstrate the significance of the stereotype being activated is applicable to the individual in question. For example, the Asian American women would pick up on the stereotypical information about their race and gender - but perhaps if stereotypical information was about how what time they ate breakfast (assuming the stereotype that those who had breakfast would perform better) was enforced, this may not have an effect at all - as the particular stereotype is not salient for the participant group to tune into. Furthermore, Levy's (1996) findings in relation to stereotypes about the elderly was tested with younger participants and resulted in no differential affects between the two stereotypes used. Therefore, this implies that for activated stereotypes to exert a specific affect on behaviour is reliant on the stereotype being relevant to the individual in question. However, this notion has been disputed and different results have been yielded. For example, Dijksterhuis and Knipperberg (1998) demonstrate how stereotype priming can affect two different groups of people. They asked a mixed group of students to think of personality traits related to either soccer hooligans or professors. They were then asked a number of questions from the game 'trivial pursuit'. Those who were asked to think about the personality traits of soccer hooligans performed worse on the task. Dijksterhuis and Knipperberg (1998) argue that these results indicate that the students acted in a stereotype-consistent fashion after being exposed to these self-irrelevant concepts. However, these results may be taken with caution-as although the activated stereotypes were apparently not related to the students- it is arguable that they infact were. For example, students will often come into contact with professors in their academic life and they may also interact with members of the college sport teams. The stereotype of a professor would be of intelligence, with the stereotype of the soccer hooligan being the direct opposite. Therefore it could be argued that is of little surprise that Dijksterhuis and Knipperberg (1998) found the above results.

Gender Roles Essay Topics

The results confirm our hypotheses that, although the general stereotype of a manager is masculine and although most prefer a man as a manager, female employees, employees with a female manager, and employees working in an organization with a high percentage of female managers, have a stronger preference for feminine characteristics of managers and for female managers. Moreover, we find that proximal variables are much stronger predictors of these preferences than more distal variables.