In November 2012, the UAE reinforced its dedication towards electronic-security and the campaign against cyber crimes. The UAE government enacted two new laws. That is, the Federal Law no. (5) Of 2012 concerning Cyber Crimes and the Federal Law no. (3) Of 2012 concerning the establishment of the National Electronic Security Authority (NESA). The Federal Law no. (3) Of 2012 is also known as the E-Security Authority Law. This set of new laws builds on the Federal Legal Decree No. (2) For 2006 on cyber crimes. They also reinforce other UAE internet security measures and programs such as the formation of the UAE Computer Emergency Response Team and various public awareness campaigns, for example, Salim (UAE-Cyber, 2012).
The internet is perhaps the most transformative invention of the twentieth century. It has allowed instant connectivity to all corners of the world in a revolutionary manner. Business and commerce have now spread to several client and consumers with relative ease. Thus, the internet is an international, interactive and consistently changing center for connectivity. Therefore, measures to maintain some order over the internet has to be an effort several players, that is, governments and private sector businesses. Cyber crime consists of all criminal activities that utilize the computer and its related devices (Casey, 2004). The offences include activities where the computer is the primary instrument of the offence, and an aid to the crime. In November 2012, the UAE implemented the most comprehensive and detailed cyber crime laws in the wider Middle East (Mustafa & Ruiz, 2012). It consisted of a full array of offences that could be committed using the computer or through the internet with their respective sentences to those found guilty. These laws were implemented in response to growing levels of cyber crime activities in the UAE. Cyber crime in the UAE is catalyzed by the aggressive advancements in technology and the increase in online transactions (Gulf-News, 2012). This report will consider the laws and regulations enacted by the UAE to fight cybercrime within and beyond its borders. The paper highlights and summarizes the cyber crime laws UAE as of April 2013.
The Federal Legal Decree No. (5) For 2012 covers a wider array of offences than the previous 2006 cyber crime laws. Examples include forging electronic documents, using IT systems for phishing and hacking, damaging or altering electronic information and interrupting access to a communication network (Mustafa & Ruiz, 2012). In addition, these laws criminalize intentional disclosure or retransmission of electronically stored data without permission (Mustafa & Ruiz, 2012). This covers sensitive credit card or financial details theft, personal medical information and fraud. Cyber crime laws in UAE also cover blackmail through electronic means. These laws also prohibit preparation, distribution, publishing or republishing of pornographic material in UAE. The UAE cyber crime laws also consist of offences linked to the threat to national security and activities promoting terrorism (Al-Jandaly, 2013).
Theft: This crime occurs when a person violates copyrights and downloads music, movies, games and software. There are even peer sharing websites which encourage software piracy and many of these websites are now being targeted by the FBI. Today, the justice system is addressing this cyber crime and there are laws that prevent people from illegal downloading.
Cyber Laws and Cyber Crime Essay - 3575 Words
Technology: Cyber laws are devised according to technology used. They turn around technology and its applications. Cyber laws set up norms of acknowledged human behaviour in cyberspace. Currently, there are two-technology school of laws which include technology Specific School and Technology Neutral School. Technology Specific School states that the law should identify only one given set of technology or technology standard. That is, law treats other standards as unlawful, non-binding and thus not allowable. This School offers a single technology platform for the whole community but it disrupts the process of technological innovations and helps in creating monopolistic business. In Indian condition, people follow a technology specific rule. Under the law (The Information Technology Act, 2000), digital signatures using prescribed asymmetric cryptosystem standard is considered legally valid. Use of any other standards would be digital signature unacceptable. When this Act is introduced, the technology procedure was quite low, but with time technology maturity has increased in India and the new Information Technology (Amendment) Bill, 2006 advocate migration towards the technology neutral rule.
on Cyber Laws or any similar ..
1. INTRODUCTION "Cyber" is a prefix used to describe a person, thing, or idea as part of the computer and information age. Taken from kybernetes, Greek word for "steersman" or "governor," it was first used in cybernetics, a word coined by Norbert Wiener and his colleagues. The virtual world of internet is known as cyberspace and the laws governing this area are known as Cyber laws and all the netizens of this space come under the ambit of these laws as it carries a kind of universal jurisdiction. Cyber law can also be described as that branch of law that deals with legal issues related to use of inter-networked information technology. In short, cyber law is the law governing computers and the internet. The growth of Electronic Commerce has propelled the need for vibrant and effective regulatory mechanisms which would further strengthen the legal infrastructure, so crucial to the success of Electronic Commerce. All these regulatory mechanisms and legal infrastructures come within the domain of Cyber law. Cyber law is important because it touches almost all aspects of transactions and activities on and involving the internet, World Wide Web and cyberspace. Every action and reaction in cyberspace has some legal and cyber legal perspectives. Cyber law encompasses laws relating to – Cyber crimes Electronic and digital signatures Intellectual property Data protection and privacy 3
PART-II Paper-III: Cyber Law-I Answer the following questions (2 x 7
The concept of cyber crime is not new, yet there are still quite a number of challenges in the legal framework designed to combat the issue. This problem has evolved speedily in the recent past, due to the increase in the application of computers, mobile devices and access to the internet. Digital crimes have transformed from ordinary fraud to extremely complex targeted and Advanced Persistence Threats (APT) (Brown & Roth, 2012). Cyber crime poses a substantive threat to individuals and national security, both online and offline. This calls for a legal setup to empower the responsible agencies act effectively on this subject. To combat the threats and damages caused by cyber related crimes, UAE (United Arab Emirates) enacted laws pertaining to cybercrime to protect its citizens, infrastructures, national security, as well as, to prosecute the people responsible for this unlawful activity. This report will consider the laws and regulations enacted by the UAE to fight cybercrime within and beyond its borders. The paper highlights and summarizes the cyber crime laws UAE as of April 2013.
UAE established special cyber crime units to tackle crime within and outside its territory (Al-Jandaly, 2013). The government has also established dedicated police departments committed to solve high-tech crimes. Other measures taken to tackle cyber crime in the UAE include public awareness and adoption of common treaties with other countries. Examples include the GCC countries and the EU. The United Arab Emirates government frequently scans the internet to filter websites that contain sensitive materials such as pornography, gambling materials, terrorist activities and anti –Islamic religion (Deibert & et-al, 2007). The aeCERT works with other agencies to formulate sound laws within the subject. TRA has been reporting the government’s efforts in counteracting internet threats, especially phishing attacks and website defacement.There are many forms of bullying: physical, verbal, indirect, and cyber bullying. In my case, it was just verbal bullying, but it still hurt. In Luis’s case it was verbal and cyber bullying; girl’s guys would call him names about his race as well as other touchy topic. Physical bullying may consist of but not limited to hitting or punching and even if you damage or take someone else’s belongings, this is still considered bullying. Verbal bullying may consist of but not limited to making racist, sexiest or homophobic jokes and using sexually suggestive or abusive language. Indirect bullying may consist of but not limited to spreading rumors about someone or excluding someone from a group. Cyber bullying may consist of but not limited to text messaging, email, and bullying via websites (Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter).
In many cases, students are afraid to say anything if they are being bullied because they may in fact be subjected to increased and escalated Bullying. There are a few ways to prevent bullying from starting. The first thing is to prevent bullying with policies administered through the School administers and well as faculty members. Schools should make a policy that prohibits such acts and has implemented consequences that follow if the policy is broken. Policies may explicitly mention major types of bullying such as verbal, physical, and cyber bullying along with bullying people with disabilities. But it is important that policies should be worded so as not to exclude the bullying of mainstream victims, and victims who are teachers, staff, administrators, or school board members, rather than students. The second thing is to prevent bullying with consequences, in universities where there are laws about bullying and in cases in which bullying involves physical altercations or damage or theft of property, the consequences of bullying may include criminal prosecution as well as school sanctions. In addition, bullies, t...