[ 2 ]. (Kwintessential Netherlands, 2013)

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The Netherlands sheltered many notable refugees, including Protestants from Antwerp and Flanders, Portuguese and German Jews, French Protestants () (including ) and (including the ). Many immigrants came to the cities of Holland in the 17th and 18th century from the Protestant parts of Germany and elsewhere. The amount of first generation immigrants from outside the Netherlands in Amsterdam was nearly 50% in the 17th and 18th centuries. Indeed, Amsterdam's population consisted primarily of immigrants, if one includes second and third generation immigrants and migrants from the Dutch countryside. People in most parts of Europe were poor and many were unemployed. But in Amsterdam there was always work. Tolerance was important, because a continuous influx of immigrants was necessary for the economy. Travellers visiting Amsterdam reported their surprise at the lack of control over the influx.

The Netherlands gained independence from Spain as a result of the , during which the Dutch Republic was founded. As the Netherlands was a republic, it was largely governed by an aristocracy of city-merchants called the , rather than by a king. Every city and province had its own government and laws, and a large degree of autonomy. After attempts to find a competent sovereign proved unsuccessful, it was decided that would be vested in the various provincial Estates, the governing bodies of the provinces. The , with its representatives from all the provinces, would decide on matters important to the Republic as a whole. However, at the head of each province was the of that province, a position held by a descendant of the . Usually the stadtholdership of several provinces was held by a single man.

From the beginning, the VOC used the cape as a place to supply ships travelling between the Netherlands and the . There was a close association between the cape and these Dutch possessions in the far east. Van Riebeeck and the VOC began to import large numbers of slaves, primarily from and . These slaves often married Dutch settlers, and their descendants became known as the and the .

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The worldwide of 1929 and the early 1930s had crippling effects on the Dutch economy, lasting longer than in most other European countries. The long duration of the Great Depression in the Netherlands is often explained by the very strict fiscal policy of the Dutch government at the time, and its decision to adhere to the for much longer than most of its trading partners. The depression led to high unemployment and widespread poverty, as well as increasing social unrest.

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The German war plan (the ) of 1905 was modified in 1908 to invade Belgium on the way to Paris but not the Netherlands. It supplied many essential raw materials to Germany such as rubber, tin, quinine, oil and food. The British used its blockade to limit supplies that the Dutch could pass on. There were other factors that made it expedient for both the and the for the Netherlands to remain neutral. The Netherlands controlled the mouths of the , the and the . Germany had an interest in the Rhine since it ran through the industrial areas of the and connected it with the Dutch port of Rotterdam. Britain had an interest in the Scheldt River and the Meuse flowed from France. All countries had an interest in keeping the others out of the Netherlands so that no one's interests could be taken away or be changed. If one country were to have invaded the Netherlands, another would certainly have counterattacked to defend their own interest in the rivers. It was too big a risk for any of the belligerent nations and none wanted to risk fighting on another front.

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was a plan in 1945 by Dutch minister of Justice Kolfschoten to evict all Germans from the Netherlands. The operation lasted from 1946 to 1948 and in the end 3691 Germans (15% of Germans resident in the Netherlands) were deported. The operation started on 10 September 1946 in Amsterdam, where Germans and their families were taken from their homes in the middle of the night and given one hour to collect 50 kg of luggage. They were allowed to take 100 . The rest of their possessions went to the state. They were taken to near the German border, the biggest of which was Mariënbosch near .

Category: essays research papers; Title: Economy of the Netherlands

In Europe, after the landed in in June 1944, progress was slow until the ended in August 1944. German resistance collapsed in western Europe and the allied armies advanced quickly towards the Dutch border. The and the Second British Army conducted operations on Dutch soil from September onwards. On 17 September a daring operation, , was executed with the goal of capturing bridges across three major rivers in the southern Netherlands. Despite desperate fighting by American, British and Polish forces, the bridge at , across the Neder Rijn, could not be captured.

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At the outbreak of World War II in 1939, the Netherlands once again declared its . However, on 10 May 1940, launched an attack on the Netherlands and Belgium and quickly overran most of the two countries. Fighting against the Dutch army proved more of a burden than foreseen; the northern attack was stopped dead, the one in the middle came to a grinding halt near the Grebbeberg and many airborne assault troops were killed and taken prisoner in the west of the country. Only in the south, defenses broke but the one passage over the river Maas at Rotterdam was held by the Dutch. By 14 May, fighting in many locations had ceased and the German army could make little or no headway, So the bombed , second largest city of the Netherlands, killing about 900 people, destroying the inner city and leaving 78,000 people homeless.

Essays include the Annals series by Dr. Charles Gehring, originally undertaken with the support of the Consulate General of the Netherlands in New York.

The Dutch empire comprised the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia), as well as Surinam in South America and some minor possessions. It was smaller in 1945 than in 1815 because the Netherlands was the only colonial power that did not expand into Africa or anywhere else. The empire was run from Batavia (in Java), where the governor and his technical experts had almost complete authority with little oversight from the Hague. Successive governors improved their bureaucratic and military controls, and allowed very little voice to the locals until the 1920s.

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In 1890, died after a long reign and was succeeded by his young daughter, (1880-1962). She would rule the Netherlands for 58 years. On her accession to the throne, the between the Netherlands and Luxembourg ended because Luxembourg law excluded women from rule. Her remote cousin became the Grand Duke of Luxembourg.