Samuel Huntington’s essay on the tension between American values and institutions, describes how the values of freedom, equality, and democracy cause friction with institutions meant to carry out foreign policy and security. The periodic backlashes that occur when civil society reacts against government can be seen in three reactions by foreign observers: 1) amazement at the US propensity for self-castigation 2) respect for taking its ideals so seriously and 3) concern over the ability of the US to meet its foreign policy commitments (p. 228).
The Mastanduno essay looks how the US system of checks and balances, as a purposefully inferior form of government, limits the US ability to carry out foreign policy. One key observation the author makes is how deep changes in the US bureaucracy after each election leave it at a disadvantage with the “permanent governments” of countries like Japan (p. 254).
The editor, John Ikenberry, chooses to frame this collection of essays on American foreign policy around the theme of the overabundance of theory and the corresponding overdetermination these many plausible descriptions of US foreign policy imply (p. vii). Part of this “problem” of overabundance is located in explanations that lie along different levels of analysis: the individual, the nation-state, and the international system. As Ikenberry notes, Kenneth Waltz and other structural realists put great stock in the idea that structural elements of the international system—anarchy, the resort to self-help, and the balance of power—are essential for determining what states can and cannot do to survive within the international system. Other authors, noting the limits of neorealism, point out that while structural elements of the international system can limit state actions, they do not explain what states do within this restricted realm of action. From this limitation of structural realism, one can see some of the rationales for approaches that stress domestic variables and the role of decision-makers.
...Policemen of the World Thesis and Outline Janene Bull Professor Joel A. Goldstein Contemporary US History 2/22/2015 The evolution of U.S. Foreign policy following the Civil War is continually evolving. During the Civil War years, America had an economy that was based on agriculture. Farmers were growing cotton, tobacco and sugarcane. Slaves from Africa worked on these enormous plantations. . At the time, America was in an election year with Lincoln as the candidate of the Republican Party claiming he was going to abolish slavery. When Lincoln won the election he did just that, immediately there after 7 states declared their independence from the US, they were then known as Confederate States. After a few years 4 more states also joined the original 7 states for a total of11 states that left the union. Foreign policy is a country's self interest strategy to safeguard its national interests and to achieve goals within international relations. During the past 5 years there have been events that can be traced back to foreign policy's created after the Civil War. For example, Issues Regarding Guantanamo Bay (Policy - Platt Amendment of 1901), and the attempt to Stop the Soviet Expansion during the Cold War (Policy - Truman Doctrine of 1947). America has taken on a policing roll, and has acted as an enforcer of global rules. When there is a threat to world peace the U.S will respond. Three instances where America has taken on the policing roll are; The...
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... China which has a policy of not conflating human rights with other foreign policy. This saw china to be a productive associate and since the Kibaki assumption to power we saw great infrastructure development that was in partnership with the Chinese government. The jettisoning of the western relations that in a way interfered with internal running of the government was now stopped. This interference was one of the reasons that led to the birth of change in resolution of Kenya’s foreign policy in the structure of international system. A major factor that facilitated Kenya’s fallout from the America’s human rights crusade is that, that crusade bore the meddling of internal affairs of other states by the US in a bid to democratize the world thus china having a relativist stand on human rights was a safe haven for Kenya and since then the over reliance of Kenya on the US for aid considerably ceased. With that happening, the foreign policy shifted from the west to the east. This slow by slow shift of to the east may be viewed as the early competition between the US and the Communists just that this time it is the Chinese who are posing this threat. Moreover since the millennia the foreign policy has considerably majored on international economics. Another pillar that has greatly influenced the change and development of Kenya’s foreign policy is the diaspora diplomacy. In the yester years very little or zero action was being taken to incorporate the people living in the diaspora......
American Foreign Policy: Theoretical Essays: G
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American Foreign Policy: Theoretical Essays [G